Acetonitrile is the chemical compound with the formula C2H3N. This colourless liquid is the simplest organic nitrile (hydrogen cyanide is a simpler nitrile, but the cyanide anion is not classed as organic). It is produced mainly as a byproduct of acrylonitrile manufacture. It is used as a polar aprotic solvent in organic synthesis and in the purification of butadiene
|Appearance||Transparent liquid, no visible impurities|
|Chromaticity (in Hazen) (Pt.-Co) ≤||<5|
|Moisture % (m/m) ≤||0.0049|
|Hydrocyanic Acid % (mg/kg) ≤||3.6|
|Acetone (mg/kg) ≤||< 5.0|
|Acrylonitrile % ≤||< 5.0|
|Heavy Component (including prop nitrile) % ≤||136.0|
|Purity % ≥||99.98|
|Ammonia (mg/kg) ≤||3.22|
|Acidity (mg/kg) ≤||28.0|
|Density (at 20°C) g/cm 3||0.781|
|Copper (mg/kg) ≤||0.01|
|Iron (mg/kg) %≤||0.04|
|Boiling Range (Under 0.10133MPa) ° C||81.1~81.8|
· Acetonitrile is primarily used as an extraction solvent for butadiene.
· It is used as a chemical intermediate in pesticide manufacturing; and as a solvent for both inorganic and organic compounds.
· It is also included as a starting material for the production of acetophenone, alpha- naphthalenacetic acid, thiamine, and acetamidine; to remove tars, phenols, and coloring matter from petroleum hydrocarbons not soluble in Acetonitrile.
· In the laboratory, acetone is used as a polar aprotic solvent in a variety of organic reactions, such as SN2 reactions. The use of acetone solvent is also critical for the Jones oxidation. It is a common solvent for rinsing laboratory glassware because of its low cost and volatility; however, it does not form a zoetrope with water.
· It is used in the production of acrylic fibers; and in pharmaceuticals, perfumes, nitrile rubber, and ABS (Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) resins.